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Title: Development of welding consumables: a historical review
Category: Technical papers from Pipeline World
Downloadable: Yes 
Catalog No.: 875
Date of Publication: February 14, 1985
Price: $25.00 US
Authors: Marie A Quintana
Abstract: The first applications of arc welding did not involve welding consumables. Although bits of carbon would occasionally fall into the puddle, carbon-arc welding was developed as an autogenous process, with an arc struck between a carbon electrode and the workpiece. The consumable welding electrode was born when Slavianoff replaced the carbon with a bare-metal electrode, usually made from a cold-rolled steel product. The process was not particularly user-friendly, producing uneven fusion, porosity, and rather large globular transfer. Consequently, the earliest efforts at consumable design were directed simply at taming the process. A major advance was made (circa 1902) when Kjellberg produced a flux for the bare electrodes: rods were dipped in a paste consisting of powdered carbonates and oxides. These coated electrodes set the foundation for developments in welding consumables for many decades.
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