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Title: Black powder - how it is formed and how to remove it
Category: Pigsource Papers
Downloadable: Yes 
Catalog No.: pg3529
Date of Publication: Oct 1 2008 12:00AM
Price: $25.00 US
Authors: Dr John Smart
Abstract: This paper presents calculated velocities for the movement of sand and “black powder” in water, oil and gas in pipe. The velocity to move particulates is calculated based on a hydrodynamic model and describes the fluid velocity to pick up a solid particle in a bed of particles and move the particle down a pipe. This velocity depends on the fluid and solid densities, the fluid viscosity and the pipe diameter. There are several applications of this velocity, from designing pigging operations in pipelines, estimating the volume of solids in a pipeline, and determining when solids will flow in a pipeline, especially for black powder in gas pipelines.
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