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Title: Approaches for determining limit load and reference stress for circumferential embedded flaws in pipe girth welds
Category: Technical papers from the Journal of Pipeline Engineering
Downloadable: Yes 
Catalog No.: 2172s
Date of Publication: Sep 1 2009 12:00AM
Price: $25.00 US
Authors: Mohamad J Cheaitani
Abstract: THIS PAPER (presented at the Pipeline Technology Conference held in Ostend, Belgium, on 12-14 October, 2009) provides an evaluation of approaches for determining limit load (and equivalent reference stress) for use in failure-assessment diagram (FAD)-based fracture assessment of circumferential embedded flaws in pipe girth welds. Three-dimensional elastic plastic finite-element analyses have been conducted on pipe models containing typical circumferential embedded flaws and subject to global bending loads. ‘J-based’ limit loads (and equivalent reference stresses) and global collapse limit loads have been determined from the finite-element analyses and used to evaluate existing standard flat-plate solutions, including those in BS 7910 and R6. A general approach for determining the limit load (and the equivalent reference stress) is presented. This approach is consistent with both the finite-element results and reference stress J-estimation scheme and, consequently, allows the development of improved assessment models.


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2. BEGL, 2001. R6 Revision 4 and amendments: Assessment of the integrity of structures containing defects. British Energy Generation Ltd, Gloucester, UK. (Amendments issued in subsequent years.)
3. API, 2000. API 579: Fitness-for-service, 1st Edn, American Petroleum Institute.
4. API/ASME, 2007. API-579-1/ASME-FFS-1-2007: Fitness-for-service, API 579 2nd Edn, American Petroleum Institute (API)/American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME).
5. A.A.Willoughby and T.G.Davey, 1987. Plastic collapse at part wall flaws in plates, in ‘Fracture mechanics: perspectives and directions. Proc. 20th national symposium, Bethlehem, PA, USA. ASTM STP 1020, pp340-409.
6. Y.Lei and P.J.Budden, 2004. Limit load solutions for plates with embedded cracks under combined tension and bending. Int. J.Pressure Vessels and Piping, 81, pp589-597.
7. ABAQUS/Standard User’s Manuals, Version 6.6, Hibbitt, Karlsson and Sorenson Inc.

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