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Title: An assessment of the effect of steel pipeline wall losses on the maximum allowable operating pressure of a gas pipeline
Downloadable: Yes 
Catalog No.: 2315s
Date of Publication: 2014-03-01
Price: $25.00 US
Authors: Dr Maciej Witek
Abstract: INTERNAL AND EXTERNAL wall defects in steel pipelines with a maximum operating pressure (MOP) above 1.6 MPa can be classified as follows:

material losses resulting in a reduction of wall thickness, for example as a consequence of electrochemical corrosion caused by oxidation, or caused by either direct or alternating current at locations of damaged insulation;
geometric shape defects caused by mechanical damage, such as dents or ovality;
cracks caused, for example, by stress corrosion or fatigue;
other types of defect caused during pipe manufacture or welding imperfections, such as delamination or inadequate weld penetration in the joints.

In practice, more than a single defect can be found at a particular location on a steel pipeline: wall damage such as corrosion, as well as different types of defect, such as a dent with wall thinning, may occur simultaneously. The majority of pipeline wall defects detailed above can be detected in the operating phase by internal examination performed using various inspection devices. Among the inspection methods used for pipelines with an MOP greater than 1.6 MPa on a commercial scale [1], inspections using intelligent tools provide the most data, with the proviso that the individual technologies used are each designed for the detection of different types of defect. The selection of a testing method depends on the experience gained from previous inspections, and particularly on the type of wall damage anticipated based on the available operational data. In some instances, it is justifiable to combine two inspection technologies during a single tool run, for example the combination of magnetic and gyroscopic technologies.
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