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Title: Acoustic remote measurements of two-phase flow in pipelines
Category: Papers by Dr Andrew Palmer
Downloadable: Yes 
Catalog No.: AP90
Date of Publication: 1991
Price: $25.00 US
Authors: R A King, A C Palmer, J M Leeds
Abstract: Detecting and analysing sound radiation is potentially a powerful method for locating partial blockages in a pipeline operating in a two-phase regime. Theoretical analysis confirms that the technique is practicable if the flow regime creates bubbles. This conclusion is tested by measurements on two-phase flow in a freon test loop. The results confirm that the pressure spectra inside the pipe show prounounced spectral peaks, at about 140dB at 1.5kHz and 120dB at 3.5kHz, associated with radial oscillations of bubbles moving through rapidly-changing pressures at the blockage.

Analysis makes it possible to predict the acoustic pressure levels in the water immediately next to a full-scale pipeline operating in a two-phase slugging mode. The levels are about 80 dB, at frequencies in the range between 200 and 450 Hz, for a 16-inch pipeline. This is 20 dB above the estimated ambient noise level of 60 dB, and can be detected by a simple hydrophone.

The results indicate that the concept has much wider potential applications.

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