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Title: CTOD and pipelines: the past, present, and future
Category: Technical papers from the Journal of Pipeline Engineering
Downloadable: Yes 
Catalog No.: 2301s
Date of Publication: 2013-09-01
Price: $25.00 US
Authors: Dr Philippa Moore and Dr Henryk Pisarski
Abstract: CRACK-TIP-OPENING displacement (or CTOD) has been the most widely used fracture- toughness parameter within the oil and gas industry for nearly 50 years. Originally developed from research at TWI in the UK during the 1960s, CTOD was an ideal parameter for characterizing the fracture toughness of medium-strength carbon manganese steels used in pressure vessels, offshore platforms, and pipelines where the application of linear-elastic fracture mechanics was insufficient to account for their ductility. Once fracture-toughness testing (CTOD testing) became standardized within BS 7448, ASTM E1290, ISO 12135, and ISO 15653, the CTOD concept enjoyed an established international reputation. The development of standardized fitness-for- service assessment procedures, initially through the use of the CTOD design curve, and then to use of the failure-analysis diagram approach described in BS 7910, also allowed CTOD to be used directly to determine tolerable flaw sizes to assess the structural integrity of welds. In more recent times, single-edge-notched tension specimen (SENT) testing has been enthusiastically adopted by the pipeline industry in place of the traditional single-edge-notched bend (SENB) specimen used for standard CTOD tests. However, currently there is no national standard describing SENT testing, although this is being developed. SENT testing is particularly advantageous when pipeline girth welds are subjected to plastic straining, and a number of assessment procedures based on CTOD have been and are being developed to define strain capacity and flaw-acceptance criteria.
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