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Title: Black powder movement in gas pipelines
Category: Pigsource Papers
Downloadable: Yes 
Catalog No.: pg3548
Date of Publication: Oct 1 2009 12:00AM
Price: $25.00 US
Authors: Dr John Smart
Abstract: Black powder, a mix of iron sulfides, oxides, and other material can represent a serious threat to the integrity of gas pipelines by plugging pipelines, eroding compressor components, plugging instrumentation and pipeline drips, preventing valid in-line inspection by In-Line Inspection (ILI) pigs, and causing damage to customer equipment. The velocity to cause movement of dry black powder in gas pipelines can be estimated using a hydraulic model and is in the range of 12 ft/sec for 24 inch pipelines. Once black powder starts to move, it will continue to move until the flow rate is reduced or the gas is compressed. Examples of black powder problems in the field are presented, and rules of thumb discussed about cleanliness in gas pipelines. Black powder can be partially controlled by using corrosion inhibitors, by using “slug catchers” or cyclones, or cleaning the line by pigging.
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